James W. Meng

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Units: Foreword 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22

10.1 10.2 10.3 10.4


Russia during the revolution and Civil War.
10.1. Reasons for revolution in Russia.

Economics. By 1917, Russia had still not solved the problem of its modernization. The economy had developed very unevenly across individual regions and industries. It is reported today that this was due to active state intervention in industrial production; and that the class system and other restrictions on personal and economic freedoms slowed the development of modern capitalism, particularly in agriculture. Alongside this, new forms of organizing businesses, including monopolistic associations, developed also in industry and finance.

At the same time, the agrarian forms championed by Pyotr Stolypin achieved some success, though they were never fully completed. During the course of the reform (1885-1913) land prices increased by nearly four times. The cost of renting land also increased. At the same time, villages retained the same taxation requirements as advanced landlord and large peasant farms. Yet the nobility retained substantial privileges in the management and taxation of their large agricultural estates from the support of the tsar and his entourage.

Politics. Russia in 1917 still maintained an absolute monarchy, with parliamentarism and effective political freedoms maintained almost entirely independently, and characterized by low governmental efficiency. When necessary - as in 1907 - basic laws were overruled by the monarch; and the highly bureaucratic executive power was completely dependent on the emperor. Even so, under the prevailing conditions of absolutist government, Tsar Nicholas II did not apply his efforts to reforming and modernizing the country.

World War I. Due to the conditions that resulted from Russia's participation in the First World War, the country's socioeconomic situation worsened dramatically. Agriculture suffered particularly badly. During the war years, the total land area under cultivation decreased nearly 12%, excluding occupied territories (especially in the south of Russia and in the North Caucasus), and the total number of active livestock herds decreased by over 7 million. By 1917 the gross harvest of cereals was barely 80% of the pre-war level, caused primarily by the mobilization of nearly 50% of the able-bodied male population for war and requisitioning of more than a third of the peasants' horses.

At the same time, due to a "dry law" as well as the fact that grain exports during the same period had ceased, bread in general was quite sufficient for the front and rear. But the army and the cities of the front often suffered from transport interruptions. Industrial businesses likewise had similar difficulties in fulfilling military orders. Yet at the same time military spending led to an overall increase in the total government debt by four times, reaching 34 billion rubles by 1917, and inflation grew rapidly. Between 1914-16 prices of everyday commodities rose by 4-5 times. In 1916, rationing of sugar, and in some provinces, bread was introduced.

Agricultural problems and defeats on the front deepened the political crisis of the monarchy, and aggrevated relations between the government and the State Duma. Due to a government crisis in 1915-16, four heads of the council of ministers and six ministers of internal affairs were replaced. The authorities also continued to discredit themselves via their connection with Grigorii Rasputin, whose name became a symbol of the disintegration of the traditional autocracy. The extreme right attempted to raise the authority of the monarch, and on the 16th of December 1916 killed Rasputin, who many felt was exerting a significant negative influence over the king. But their focus on repression nevertheless continued.

On this background, in August 1915 a major consolidation of the opposition in the State Duma began to occur. The liberal and moderate right-wing sectors of the Duma accused the government of military defeat and together formed an opposition majority known as the Progressive Bloc. The coalition demanded the formation of a "social trust" government. Not long thereafter, in November 1916, an even more radical demand arose to create a unique ministry accountable directly to the Duma. The general mood among the opposition at that point began to increase markedly, and the revolutionary movement was increasingly better able from that point forward to deprive the autocracy of sociopolitical support, and isolate the emperor and other components of executive power - who were in no condition to manage the situation.

The war, and the associated mobilization of the people it brought about, along with the political crisis and overall economic conditions further served to intensify the social discontent of the lower classes and the growth of anti-war sentiments. In 1915, cities and industrial centers began to see a dramatic increase in the number of strikes, whose participants made mostly economic demands. In 1915, a grand total of approximately 600,000 people went on strike; in 1916 - 1.2 million. In January and February 1917 alone, the number of strikers was over 600,000 people.

During the years of the war the peasants likewise renewed their demands. In the Kuban, in Stavropol, in Ukraine, along the Volga there were insurrections against high prices. If by 1915 177 peasant demonstrations had already occurred, then by 1916 - at least 290.

The masses of soldiers, along with soldiers' organizations, also became increasingly politically active, even joining revolutionary political parties. The primary trend was a rapid growth of anti-war sentiments, and a sense of brotherhood with their German counterparts.

In a bid to maintain the ranks of the army, on the 25th of June 1916 the Tsar decreed a forced recruitment of men from Kazakhstan, Siberia, Khiva, and other parts of Central Asia to the front-line areas. This, as well as the establishment of cotton price caps and the growth of land taxes and military requisitions, led to a powerful uprising in Kazakhstan and throughout Central Asia in the summer and autumn of 1916.

10.2. The February Revolution.

The 1917 revolution in Russia began with a powerful and sudden surge in the workers' strike movement in Petrograd. On the 23rd of February 1917, striking workers staged a major demonstation against shortages of bread, rises in consumer prices, and the continuation of the war. By the next day the strike had already swelled to 214,000 people. By the 25th, the strikers' ranks had grown to over 305,000 and just two days later, on the 27th, 70,000 soliders also joined the ranks of the revolutionaries.

Tsar Nikolai II and his inner circle were unable to fully control the situation in the capital and indeed in the country in general. On the 25th of February, the Tsar issued a proclamation suspending the State Duma, thereby eliminating the possibility of reformist appeasement by political means.

Shortly thereafter the general political strike transformed rapidly into a spontaneous armed uprising. On the evening of the 27th of February, rebels stormed the Winter Palace. Train stations, bridge controls, and important government agencies were seized, and key government ministers arrested. Once Petrograd fell under revolutionary control, Moscow and cities further throughout the country were not far behind.

During the night of the 1st of March, Tsar Nikolai II signed into law a manifesto to create a "responsible ministry" and published a proclamation suspending the expedition of General N.I. Ivanov, in hopes that it would appease the revolutionary movement. But under these extremely complicated and difficult conditions the army did not support its emperor, and several higher commanders appealed repeatedly to Nikolai II "in the name of saving the motherland and its dynasty" to agree with the proposal put forth by the chairman of the Provisional Committee of the State Duma, M.V. Rodzianko, of abdication in favor of the thirteen-year-old Tsarevich Alexei under the regency of Grand Prince Mikhail Aleksandrovich.

Reports from the commanders on the fronts, as well as news of the events in Petrograd propmted Tsar Nikolai II to abdicate during the night of the 2nd of March to abdicate in favor of his younger brother, Grand Prince Mikhail. But Mikhail, under pressure from political leaders, then refused the throne, saying that the Constituent Assembly should decide the fate of the monarchy. Now under considerable pressure, Tsar Nikolai II and family were arrested, and in August they were exiled to Tobolsk - and thus the royal dynasty of the Romanovs was brought to an abrupt end.

Shortly thereafter, the institution of monarchy was abolished; and the State Council, State Duma, and tsarist police were dissolved. New governing bodies were created: the Council of Workers' Deputies, chaired by revolutionary Menshevik N.S. Chkheidze; and the Provisional Government headed by Prince G.E. Lvov. Unique circumstances gave rise to a double-faceted power dynamic in Russia.

Following the victory of the February Revolution, Russia is arguably on the forefront of European democracy. Political rights and freedoms have been proclaimed in the country; universal and equal suffrage has been declared; restrictions previously applicable based on class, nationality, and relgion have been abolished, along with capital punishment and military tribunals; and political amnesty has been declared. Many political, social, and cultural societies, associations, trade unions, and factory committees were created.

On the 28th of February 1917, the first order of the Petrograd Soviet was adopted on the "democratization" of the army. On its basis, elected committees of soliders and sailors were created in the army, who controlled weapons, officers' activities, and so forth. This weakened discipline among the troops considerably.

Economic policy. The economic policy of the Provisional Government focused on two primary tasks: supplying the army, and solving the problem of food shortages across the country. On the 25th of March 1917, a law was passed to address the grain monopoly, which left owners with a minimal profit. Remaining product was required to be sold to local food authorities at fixed prices.

Following the February Revolution, the situation in the more distant provinces of Russia changed dramatically, and national elites along with new political parties became more active.

The Provisional Government issued a petition "To Poles" with a promise to grant Poland independence in the near future. The rights of Finland were restored, but only on the condition that it remained a part of Russia. A special degree of the Provisional Government abolished the residence qualifications for Jews, and they received full civil rights.

Meanwhile, in June, the Central Rada of Ukraine proclaimed the country's autonomy. New government authorities were formed. The Provincial Government recognized the new Ukrainian government - the Geneeral Secretariat, headed by M.S. Grushevsky - subordinate to the central authorities in Petrograd. In Belarus similar desires for autonomy arose, though they were not pursued with equally great intensity.

One key feature of the Provisional Government was its reaffirmation of Russia's committment to leading the war to a victorious end, and by April 1917 this had led to major protests in Petrograd and other cities and eventually led to the first major political crisis of the new, post-Tsarist government, which soon became permanent. The Provisional Government attempted to bring an end to the crisis by building coalitions with the leftist parties, forming a government now known as the First Coalition Government, but continued committment to the war effort by this government led to the next political crisis of June 1917: in response to a major offensive on the front, mass demonstrations were initiated by left-wing parties in Petrograd demanding an end to the war and transfer of power to the Soviets.

When the new offensive on the front failed, another political crisis arose. On the 3rd and 4th of July, Petrograd was paralyzed by massive, armed anti-government demonstrations of over 500,000 workers and soliders under the slogan "All power to the Soviets!" Authorities attempted to hold back the demonstration and shootings ensued, killing over 50 people and, ultimately, stabilizing the situation somewhat.

The July political crisis also brought about a full transition of power throughout the country to the Provisional Government. On the 8th of July, Kerensky was appointed prime minister. On the 19th, General L.G. Kornilov became Supreme Commander-in-Chief. This, however, did not appear to stabilize anything; the Provisional Government appeared not to satisfy either the right or left nor demonstrate any real ability to cope with the situation.

In order to prevent another revolution, the liberals were preparing to establish a military dictatorship headed by General Kornilov. But Kornilov was stopped by the revolutionary forces and Red Guards, and arrested. Under these conditions, the Bolshevik Party, led by V.I. Lenin, seized the opportunity to prepare a socialist revolution through armed insurrection, and strengthened his party's influence over troops, trade unions, and Soviets. On the 25th of September, Bolshevik L.I. Trotsky became head of the Petrograd Soviet, at which point the Bolshevik party had over 350,000 members.

The broader situation leading to the unsuccessful ascendance of Kornilov eventually led to the final and most crippling political crisis of the Provisional Government. The right accused Kerensky of Kornilov's betrayal; the left called him a counter-revolutionary.

On the 1st of September Russia was proclaimed a republic. On the 3rd of September the Provisional Government handed over executive power to Kerensky. From the 14th to 22nd of September in Petrograd, the All-Russian Democratic Conference was held with the participation of political parties, zemstvos, city dumas, and trade unions. The meeting elected the Council of the Republic, which was called up to settle the issue of power in the country.

On the 25th of September, A.F. Kerensky formed the final coalition government among the Cadets, Socialist-Revolutionaries, and Mensheviks. But no important political or economic decisions were made, as they preferred to delay rerforms rather than risking a loss of support. Meanwhile, as the political crisis deepened throughout the country, power moved from city dumas and zemstvos to Soviets. By early October, the country had 974 Soviets of Workers' and Soldiers' Deputies, of which more than 600 supported the transfer of all power to the Soviets; and 455 Soviets of Peasants' Deputies.

In the fight for the support of the masses, the Bolsheviks used municipal campaigns - elections to district and city dumas. In August, 34% of voters in Petrograd voted for the Bolsheviks, and in Moscow they received 52% of the vote. Control gradually passed into the hands of the Bolsheviks.

By the fall, Lenin's supporters had strengthened their positions in both the Moscow Soviets. The Petrograd Soviet adopted a Bolshevik resolution "On Power" on the 31st of August 1917 demanding the full resignation of the Provisional Government, creating a "truly revolutionary government" at the all-Russian Congress of Soviets. A similar resolution was adopted by the Moscow Soviet on the 5th of Semptember. On the 17th, the Bolshevik V.P. Nogin was elected chairman of the Moscow City Council; and on the 25th, L.I. Trotsky became chairman of the Petrograd Soviet.

At the end of September, a Second Congress of Baltic Fleet Deputies was held at which the sailors adopted a resolution on the fleet's non-compliance with the government. The Central Committee of the Baltic fleet was elected, in which the Bolsheviks and the Left Socialist-Revolutionaries held the majority of representation. However, by October the Bolsheviks were still unable to win a majority in the Soviets.

Against the background of a deepening economic and political crisis, social discontent continued to simmer and grow among the lower classes against both the policies of the authorities and the ongoing war.

10.3. The October Uprising. Rise of the Bolsheviks.

During the eight months of rule by the Provisional Government in Russia, the country's military situation deteriorated and its international positions weakened. The government failed to carry out any meaningful reforms in the countyside, and failed to stabilize its situation on its national borders. And so it completely lost support among the masses.

Oddly, these conditions all eventually contributed to the Provincial Government being quickly and peacefully overthrown. The Bolsheviks, who advocated aggressively for armed revolution under the slogans "land to the peasants, factories to the workers, peace to peoples" had neither an organized police force, nor a government-backed military to contend with.

On the 12th of October 1917, the Petrograd Soviet established the headquarters of an armed uprising - the Military Revolutionary Committee. On the 24th of October, the Military Revolutionary Committee sent an order to all the regiments of the Petrograd garrison and to the ships of the Baltic Fleet to bring the regiments to full combat readiness. That night, revolutionary troops captured bridges, a post office, a telegraph office, a city power station, and the State Bank. By morning Petrograd was in the hands of the rebels, who had not encountered any resistance.

On the morning of the 25th of October, the Military Revolutionary Committee published a proclamation entitled "To the Citizens of Russia!" which declared the Provisional Government deposed and the transfer of power to the Second Congress of Soviets proclaimed. That night, the Winter Palace was stormed again, members of the Provisional Government were arrested, and the armed uprising in Petrograd was over.

Meanwhile, during the evening of the 25th of October, the Second Congress of Soviets of Workers' and Soldiers' Deputies opened, and officially recognized the results of the revolution and proclaimed the establishment of the Soviet authorities. At the congress a Decree on Peace was adopted, proposing that the people of Europe's warring factions conclude a just and democratic peace among themselves. The Decree on Land was also adopted, declaring the abolition of private land ownership, a prohibition on land purchase and sale, equal land use, prevention of hired labor - all corresponding to the Socialist-Revolutionaries' agrarian reform program of "socialization" of the land.

At the Congress, new government organizations were formed. The highest legislative body was the All-Russian Congress of Soviets. A Bolshevik government was formed - the Council of People's Commissars, headed by V.I. Lenin. The congress also announced the need for an early convocation of the Constituent Assembly.

Gradually, Soviet power was established in other regions of the country. In Moscow, an armed uprising had begun simultaneously along with Petrograd. An extended and quite bloody clash broke out between the Moscow Military Revolutionary Committee and the Public Security Committee of the City Duma, ending only on the 2nd of November in favor of the Bolsheviks after an extended battle with the use of artillery, during which the Kremlin passed twice from hand to hand. In 1918, the Bolshevik government moved from Petrograd to Moscow; Moscow then became the capital of the RSFSR. In 1922, after the formation of the Soviet Union, Moscow became the capital of the USSR.

It was quite difficult for the Bolsheviks to manage affairs in regions where the national governments - the Ukrainian Central Rada, the Belarusian Rada, the Kokand Autonomy in Turkestan, the Orenburg autonomy - were still in power until October. These governments advocated the creation of independent "bourgeois" nation-states on their territories. In the Transcaucasus, the Muslim Democratic Party Musavat (Azerbaijan), Dashnaktsutyun (Armenia) and the Georgian Social Democrats created an united government, known as the Transcaucasian Commissariat, with the support of the Entente countries, and then proclaimed independent republics in May 1918.

Following military action by the Red Guard in 1918, Soviet authority prevailed in Estonia, Latvia, Lithuania, Belarus, Ukraine, the North Caucasus, and the Russian southeast. In April 1918 the Turkestan Autonomous Soviet Republic was established on the territory of Central Asia, but Khiva and Bukhara proclaimed their independence.

After the revolution the Bolsheviks proclaimed a new kind of statehood - a dictatorship of the proletariat in the form of the Republic of Soviets of Workers', Soldiers' and Peasants' Deputies. The executive power, as well as the ability to create legislation, belonged to the Council of People's Commissars and people's commissariats, created in place of ministries. The previous judicial system was abolished; in its place, people's courts and revolutionary tribunals were created. On the 7th of December 1917, the All-Russian Extraordinary Commission for Combating Counter-Revolution and Sabotage (known as the Cheka, or VChK) was elected, with Felix E. Dzerzhinsky as chairman. The opposition press was banned.

On the 12th of November 1917, the Bolsheviks held elections to the Constituent Assembly by direct, secret ballot. The majority of votes received in the elections were for representatives of the Socialist-Revolutionary Party: 40.4%. Traditional liberals and rightists received 17%, while 23.2% voted for the Bolsheviks. Thus the Bolsheviks were a minority. On the 5th of January 1918 the Constituent Assembly was dispersed.

The Bolsheviks pursued a policy of full nationalization in the financial sphere. State and joint-stock commercial banks moved under state ownership. Policies of centralizing state administration were also implemented. On the 2nd of December 1917 the Higher Council of the National Economy (VSNKh) was established to manage the public sector of the economy. Nationalization of enterprises and entire branches of industry (water and rail transport, textiles and sugar, oil production and processing, etc.) was carried out. By a decree of the 14th of November 1917, enterprises introduced workers' control, which was regarded as the first step towards nationalization. A state monopoly on foreign trade was also introduced.

Major social changes also took place after the revolution. An 8-hour workday was introduced; child labor was banned; equality of rights for men and women was proclaimed. By a decree of the 20th of January 1918, the church was separated from the state and schools likewise separated from the church.

On the 10th of November 1917 the army was demobilized and replaced by a universal right of the people to bear arms. The Bolsheviks abandoned this shortly thereafter due to real-life considerations. On the 15th of January 1918 the decree "On the organization of the Workers' and Peasants' Red Army" was adopted into practice. Shortly thereafter, on the 29th of January a decree was passed on the creation of the Workers' and Peasants' Red Navy. L.D. Trotsky became a key organizer of the Red Army.

Russia remained a multinational state. The 2nd of November 1917 saw the adoption of the Declaration of the Rights of the Peoples of Russia, which proclaimed the equality and sovereignty of all nations and nationalities. In December 1917 the Soviet authorities recognized the independence of Poland and Finland.

In July 1918 the Constitution of the RSFSR was adopted. It implemented the foundations of the political system of the Soviet state: public ownership of the means of production; dictatorship of the proletariat; federal structure of the state. The Constitution gave workers advantages in representation: one worker's voice was equal to five votes of peasants. Workers therefore had a five-fold greater representation in the Soviets than their share of population. The Constitution also deprived former "exploiter classes", roughly 10% of the population, of all electoral rights.

In foreign policy, the Bolsheviks' adoption of the Decree on Peace was intended to bring about an end to World War I and conclude peace - but the Entente countries did not respond to this proposal. The Soviet authorities were forced to make separate negotiations with Germany and its allies. Eventually, after long and difficult negotiations on the 3rd of March 1918, in the city of Brest-Litovsk, Soviet Russia signed a peace treaty with Germany. Its conditions were heavy and humiliating, and were in effect dictated by Germany in the form of an ultimatum: Russia lost a total area of 780,000 square kilometers, announced the full demobilization of its armed forces, and paid a contribution of 3 million rubles to Germany.

Unfortunately, the execution of the Brest-Litovsk Peace treaty did little to ease the fighting on the Eastern Front. By the summer of 1918, Germany and Austria-Hungary occupied the Baltic states, Ukraine, a number of provinces of Belarus and Russia with a total area of 1 million square kilometers. In May and June of 1918, German troops also invaded Transcaucasia.

10.4. Civil War and foreign intervention in Russia.

Just as the Provisional Government had been overthrown and the October Revolution declared victorious, the Civil War began. The Bolsheviks were opposed by the tsarist army, monarchists, bourgeoisie, and liberals. But by that time, the dictatorship, the persecution of the opposition, the economic policies of the Bolsheviks, and the activities of the interim authorities had bred considerable displeasure among parts of the intelligentsia, peasants, and workers.

One feature of the Russian Civil War was the involvement of significant numbers of foreign troops. By early 1919, the number of foreign military forces in the south reached 130,000 soldiers; in the north - up to 20,000. In the Far East and Siberia, the Allies concentrated up to 150,000 troops.

During the Civil War, the White movement became the leading military force in the struggle against the Bolsheviks and Soviet power. Among the key figures who arose to fight the revolution were General A.M. Kaledin; the Cossack general P.N. Krasnov; and in the south of the Urals - Hetman A.I. Dutov.

By the end of 1917 a powerful center of counter-revolution had arisen in the south of Russia. The Central Rada of Ukraine spoke out against the new government; on the Don, the Volunteer Army was formed, led by A.V. Alekseev and L.G. Kornilov. Particularly important during the war years was the position of the peasantry. Many peasants opposed the government-backed regulation of agriculture, particularly in grain production; one particularly common form of resistance to the new Soviet authorities was refusal to serve in the Red Army. By June 1918, many peasants had joined the armed struggle on the side of the Whites, particularly in the Volga region and in the Urals, where the Soviets were quickly liquidated.

In November 1918, in the East of the country, in Omsk, Admiral A.V. Kolchak made a successful coup, after which he was proclaimed the Supreme Ruler of Russia. Under his leadership the Omsk government was created, ruling all of Siberia, the Urals, and the Orenburg province for a time. The leading force in the struggle against the Bolsheviks in the south was General A.I. Denikin; in the northwest, General N.N. Yudenich; and in the north of the country, General E.K. Miller.

The Bolsheviks took steps to organize defense. In September 1918, the Revolutionary Military Council of the Republic was established with L.D. Trotsky as chairman; it organized all military institutions, and was responsible for the formation of the Red Army. By the end of 1918 the Red Army numbered over 1.5 million, and by the war's end, 5 million.

The numbers of the White armies, by contrast, were relatively small. The army of Admiral A.V. Kolchak was about 500,000 people; that of General A.I. Denikin - 100,000; and that of General N.N. Yudenich - 20,000.

The economic policy of the Bolsheviks during the Civil war was called "military communism". It was primarily characterized by the liquidation of the market and all other non-state trade. A general labor requirement of all citizens was introduced; the slogan of the time was "Those who do not work, do not eat." Provision of food and personal consumption items was carried out through the system of state procurement, and for this purpose, cards and issuance rates were introduced.

In industry, by a decree of the 28th of June 1918, nationalization of all branches of industry was accelerated. By 1920, 80% of large and medium-sized enterprises were nationalized. Beginning the 1st of January 1921, free supply of food and industrial goods to the population was introduced; subsequently, requirements for payment for fuel and other state utilities were cancelled.

In efforts to combat hunger in May 1918, seizures of grain stocks from well-to-do peasantry were introduced. But the policy failed in most cases to improve the supplies of bread and in many cases led to anti-Bolshevik demonstrations. By 1919, food surpluses were once again a reality. But peasant uprisings against the Soviets nevertheless began again in earnest in the spring of 1919 in Ukraine, the Urals, the Stavropol territory and in the Volga region. In March 1919 an uprising of 30,000 Cossacks broke out on the Don. In 1920-21 a major uprising occurred in the Tambov province under the leadership of A.S. Antonov. In January 1921 a peasant uprising numbering over 100,000 broke out in Western Siberia. All were suppressed by the Red Army.

At the same time, the peasantry was somewhat divided over notions of support for the Soviet regime in the struggle with the White movement. In late 1919-20 in Siberia, under heavy siege from the Red Army and peasant detachments, the troops of Admiral A.V. Kolchak were finally defeated. By the end of 1920, the Civil War had come to an end in defeat for the Whites as General P.N. Wrangel conceded the Crimea.

In May 1920, the Red Army entered a war against Poland that ended in failure for Russia. In March 1921, the Riga Peace Treaty was signed ending this war and assigning the western territories of Ukraine and Belarus to Poland. Yet results in Central Asia were very different: by 1921 the Red Army had established Soviet power on the territories of Central Asia and Transcaucasia, and by the end of 1922 military operations in the Far East had completely ceased.

The Bolsheviks, despite having experienced fierce resistance, had managed to retain power and preserve Russian statehood; to create an army; and to mobilize all economic resources. But the Civil War and foreign intervention had caused great damage to the Russian economy. Industrial and agricultural production had declined dramatically, and in 1920-21 a severe famine was the result. The Civil War also left a significant mark on the political culture of the Bolshevik leaders: the extraordinary conditions of wartime facilitated the curtailment of democracy and the establishment of a rigid one-party dictatorship; they also helped distinctly to establish command and administrative methods in the country.

All in all, the Civil War also established a new consciousness for Soviet society - one that combined revolutionary romancicism with an extremely low value placed upon human life.